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What are malocclusion in children?
Occlusion defects are defined as oral cavity structure and function disorder. They are associated with incorrect arrangement of teeth and / or dental arches, causing difficulties in such activities as e.g. breathing, chewing, swallowing or proper speech. In addition to problems related to abnormalities in the structure and function of the teeth, they can also lead to mental disorders as a result of disorders in the appearance of the skull. They are a consequence of the action of factors that disturb the proper formation of oral organs either during fetal life (birth defects) or after birth (acquired defects). The occurrence of congenital malocclusion is influenced by genetic factors and some substances that can cross the placenta, e.g. from drugs that should not be used during pregnancy. Acquired defects may be related, among others with too long a sucking habit, reluctance to eat solid foods or injuries.
What symptoms do malocclusions give?
In addition to changes in the position of the teeth, there is a change in their appearance due to the aggravation of the defect. Teeth are most often uneven, of different sizes, and then tend to wear, crumble or crack. Exposure to caries, inflammation and hypersensitivity are also increasing. Additionally, they may be associated with a defectheadache and shoulder girdle especially radiating to the jaw or jaw.
Types of malocclusion in children
The most common of all occlusal defects includes:
- Open bite- it is a disadvantage that makes chewing and biting food to a large extent difficult. When biting between the lower and upper teeth, so-called non-bite crack.
- Overshot - is the most common malocclusion. It involves retraction of the mandible, so the lower dental arch is retracted relative to the upper arch overlapping it, which means that the front teeth of both arches do not touch each other.
- undershot - it is a situation when the lower dental arch is extended so much that during the bite it overlaps the upper arch, and not vice versa. It causes facial lengthening and often the so-called the palate of gothic.
- Deep bite - deep overlap of upper incisors.
- Cross bite- visible as improper overlap of the upper and lower jaws.
- Teeth separated - between the individual teeth visible cracks visible to the naked eye.
- crowding - it is a defect in which the teeth are too large in relation to the alveolus that contain them, as a result of which they are turned and placed at an incorrect angle.
Treatment of malocclusion in children
Although not all malocclusion is very advanced, it is recommended in every case dental consultation, because in addition to defects in appearance, they can also cause serious functional abnormalities in the mouth and face. It often happens that it is the dentist, e.g. during routine checkup, who first informs about the existence of a defect and recommends consultation. However, if the symptoms are very severe or are accompanied by pain or rapidly progressing changes - you need to see a specialist as soon as possible.
A therapeutic technique useful in the treatment of malocclusion is, among othersmyotherapy, i.e. gymnastics of mimic muscles and masseter. Very often the defect is also corrected with appropriate orthodontic braces, and sometimes it is also necessary intervention of the maxillofacial surgeon.The choice of therapeutic method depends, however, mainly on the type and severity of the defect and must be carefully thought out.
Remember that it's always worth to decide on consultation and treatment, because quick diagnosis and implementation of appropriate therapeutic methods in many cases allows complete or significant improvement of the appearance and function of the bite.
Malocclusion is one of the more common conditions that young patients suffer from. Their rapid detection, accurate diagnostics and appropriate treatment are, however, crucial not only for the child's well-being and appearance, but also for his health. Untreated malocclusions can lead to speech disorders, chewing and chewing, caries, temporomandibular joint dysfunction and even facial deformities. It is worth taking care of your teeth and not underestimating diseases or irregularities, because remember that healthy teeth are the basis of our business card - a beautiful smile.